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Ma Hope Ho'i Ma Mua

Provisional GovernmentWhereas, the United States Minister thereupon extended diplomatic recognition to the Provisional Government that was formed by the conspirators without the consent of the Native Hawaiian people or the lawful Government of Hawaii and in violation of treaties between the two nations and of international law; Dole in Queen's Chair

Under international law, you would not call this a provisional government – I certainly wouldn't call it that – you would call it a government of military occupation. And certainly I would suggest that would be an appropriate way to think about it. ... So I submit that this "provisional government" is really the civilian arm of a military occupation force, and that then is the predecessor to the current government of Hawai'i that administers you today. Again, following the implications of the public law, that the state government of Hawai'i occupies a similar position. And then of course you have federal occupying military forces here keeping it in power.

Prof. Francis A. Boyle
Dec. 28, 1993

Ma Hope Ho'i Ma Mua