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Ma Hope Ho'i Ma Mua

Hawaiian Girl Whereas, the indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum;

Black's Law Dictionary (Sixth Edition)

The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which any independent state is governed; supreme political authority; the supreme will; paramount control of the constitution and frame of government and its administration; the self-sufficient source of political power, from which all specific political powers are derived; the international independence of a state, combined with the right and power of regulating its internal affairs without foreign dictation; also a political society, or state, which is sovereign and independent.

This gets back to the question of what happened in 1959. What validity was that entitled to? Congress is saying, none. And I would say even before this, none, because you didn't have a plebiscite conducted by the United Nations organization itself, which would have been a requirement if Article 73 of the UN Charter had been carried out. The U.S. didn't do that. So Congress is effectively conceding now that the so-called vote is meaningless, as a matter of international law and United States domestic law. So you're not bound by it.

Rather, I'm suggesting you're now free to determine your own fate pursuant to the principle of self-determination in Article 1, paragraph 2 of the United Nations Charter.

Prof. Francis A. Boyle
Dec. 28, 1993

Ma Hope Ho'i Ma Mua